Μήπως μπορεί κάποιος να μου πεί ποιες εθνικότητες υπάρχουν και ζουν στην Ελβετία;
Αν βασιστείτε μόνο στα πιο κάτω πάντως θα δυσκολευτείτε πάρα πολύ……………..δεν υπάρχει και δεν γίνεται ούτε μια αναφορά σε εθνότητες και εθνική καταγωγή!
Όλες οι εξουσίες (νομοθετική, εκτελεστική, δικαστική) βασίζονται στον Ελβετικό Λαό ως σύνολο και ως Καντόνια τα οποία όμως μπορούν να κατοικηθούν από όποιον Ελβετό οιασδήποτε εθνικότητας……….
Δεν υπάρχει κανένας περιορισμός στην ελεύθερη εγκατάσταση σε οποιοδήποτε καντόνιο από τα 26
Αυτά για αρχή….
από την επίσημη ιστοσελίδα της Ελβετικής ομοσπονδίας των 26 καντονίων
In 1848, Switzerland was founded as a modern federal state from a loose confederacy of autonomous cantons. The various member cantons, which had
been engaged in a civil war (the Sonderbund War of 1847) prior to the foundation, united to form a single state.
Peaceful co-existence in one state has been made possible by a decentralised federalist structure, in which the solidarityof the individual member cantons plays an important role.
The Federal authorities represent the highest level of power in Switzerland. They represent the interests of the Swiss population abroad and at a domesticlevel ensure that the interests of the individual member cantons of the Confederation are given equal consideration.
Present-day Switzerland is made up of 20 full cantons and 6 half-cantons. The first cantons to join in a confederation were Uri, Schwyz and Unterwalden in 1291, and themost recent to gain the independent status of a canton is the Jura (following its separation from the Canton of Bern in 1979).
The smallest political entities are the communes: Switzerland is made up of around 2900 autonomous communes.
Switzerland is unique in its political structure. The political system, unlike that in most other democratic countries, is not based on confrontation between
a government and its opposition, but is dependent on consensus between political factions.
The involvement of all language groups in the political process and the right of the people to have their say – direct democracy – favours social cohesion and co-existence within the country.
Switzerland is a federal republic with a system of direct democracy, in which the ultimate power lies in the hands of the people.
Not everyone who lives in Switzerland has the right to participate in popular votes and elections. The electorate comprises all eligible Swiss citizens who are over the age of 18 years. All men have had the right to vote and to stand for election since 1848, but women acquired these rights only in 1971.
Voters elect the Parliament (and equivalent executive bodies at both cantonal and communal levels). They can voice their opinions on specific issues in popular
ballots, for example by using a popular initiative to propose new legislation, or a referendum to veto a new law approved by Parliament.
At a federal level, voters can make use of three democratic rights: the popular initiative, the referendum and the petition. At cantonal and communal levels in
Switzerland, even more instruments of direct democracy are available.
Right to propose a popular initiative: anyone who wishes to have an amendment made to the Constitution can use the popular initiative to call for a popular
vote to be held on the proposed amendment.
Right to request a referendum: citizens who are eligible to vote can request a referendum on decisions made by Parliament and thus ensure that a
vote is held on the proposed legislation.
The petition is an instrument used to submit written requests, proposals or complaints to the authorities. The authorities are required to acknowledge
the petition, although they are under no obligation to respond to the issue it raises. The right to submit a petition is open to any person of sound judgement.
The Parliament is made up of two chambers of equal standing: the National Council and the Council of States. Together they form the United Federal
Assembly, the Swiss legislature. Their responsibilities include the election of the members of the Federal Council and of the judges of the Federal Courts.
Members of parliament are not full-time politicans, but also have another occupation. The Parliament convenes for four three-week sessions every year
and decides on a wide variety of business. The matters discussed have been prepared in advance by the relevant standing committees.
Το εθνικό συμβούλιο National Council
The National Council is made up of 200 representatives of the People, with a minimum of one seat for each canton. The seats are allocated on the basis of a
system of proportional representation and in accordance with the populations of the cantons.
Οι έδρες του καταλαμβάνονται από τα εξής κόμματα από ολόκληρο το λαό:
Swiss Peoples Party grouping
Christian Democratic Party grouping
Radical Party Grouping
Green Party grouping
The Council of States
The Council of States is made up of 46 representatives of the cantons, two for each full canton and one for each half-canton. The election of the members of the Council of States is the responsibility of the cantons. In most cases, these elections are based on the first past the post system.
The Parliament is the supreme legislative body. It is responsible for debating and passing new legislation, and electing the members of the Federal Council and
the judges of the Federal Courts.
The Federal Council
The Federal Council has seven members, who are elected by the United Federal Assembly for a term of office of four years at the start of each new legislative
period. The Federal Council is assisted and advised by the Federal Chancellor, who is sometimes referred to unofficially as «the 8th councillor».
The President of the Confederation
Each year, one member of the Federal Council is appointed President of the Confederation, based on a system of rotation. The Federal President is
regarded as the «Primus inter pares», or first among equals. The President chairs Federal Council meetings and represents the Confederation at official events.
In keeping with the strength of the parties in Parliament, the Federal Council has since January 2004 been composed of two members from each of the SVP
(Swiss People’s Party), the SP (Socialist Party) and the FDP (Free Democratic Party), and one member from the CVP (Christian Democratic Party).
Tasks of the Federal Council / I
The Federal Council is the highest executive body and in this capacity is responsible for carrying out the tasks of government. It is responsible for ensuring
that existing legislation is implemented properly and for the management of the activities of those parts of the Federal Administration that are subordinate to it.
asks of the Federal Council / II
In addition, the Federal Council is closely involved in the legislative process, as it has the task of preparing new legislation, submitting legislative bills to Parliament,
and enacting the ordinances that implement new laws in detail.
The Federal Courts
From 2006 there will be four separate courts that preside over federal law matters. The judges sitting in these courts are elected by the United Federal
Assembly in the same way as the members of the Federal Council.
Federal Supreme Court
The Swiss Federal Supreme Court has its seat in Lausanne. It employs 30 judges and 30 substitute judges. The Federal Supreme Court is the highest judicial authority
Federal Insurance Court
The Federal Insurance Court is based in Lucerne. It employs 11 full-time and 11 part-time judges. It is the court of final appeal for insurance law cases.
Federal Criminal Court / Federal Administrative Court
The newly established Federal Criminal Court has its seat in Bellinzona.
The Federal Administrative Court, which is to be based in St Gallen, will come into operation in 2010.
Επειδή κάποιοι μιλάνε περί ελβετικού μοντέλου οι οποίοι προφανώς αγνοούν πως ακριβώς λειτουργεί η Ελβετία
Art. 24 Freedom of domicile
1 Swiss citizens have the right to establish their domicile anywhere in the country.
2 They have the right to leave or to enter Switzerland.
Art. 37 Citizenship
1 Anyone who is a citizen of a commune and of the Canton to which that commune belongs is a Swiss citizen.
2 No one shall be given preferential treatment or suffer prejudice because of their citizenship. The foregoing does not apply to regulations on political rights in citizens’ communes and corporations or to participation in the assets thereof, unless cantonal legislation provides otherwise.
Art. 46 Implementation of federal law
1 The Cantons shall implement federal law in accordance with the Federal Constitution and federal legislation.
2 The Confederation and the Cantons may together agree that the Cantons should achieve specific goals in the implementation of federal law and may to this end conduct programmes that receive financial support from the Confederation.1
2 The Confederation shall allow the Cantons all possible discretion to organise their own affairs and shall take account of cantonal particularities.2
Art. 49 Precedence of and compliance with federal law
1 Federal law shall take precedence over any conflicting provision of cantonal law.
2 The Confederation shall ensure that the Cantons comply with federal law.
Title 4: The People and the Cantons
Art. 136 Political rights
1 All Swiss citizens over the age of eighteen, unless they lack legal capacity due to mental illness or mental incapacity, shall have political rights in federal matters. Such citizens shall all have the same political rights and duties.
2 They may participate in elections to the National Council and in federal popular votes, and launch or sign popular initiatives and requests for referendums in federal matters.
Art. 138 Popular initiative requesting the complete revision of the Federal Constitution
1 Any 100,000 persons eligible to vote may within 18 months of the official publication of their initiative propose a complete revision of the Federal Constitution.1
2 This proposal must be submitted to a vote of the People.
Art. 149 Composition and election of the National Council
1 The National Council shall be composed of 200 representatives of the People.
2 The representatives shall be elected directly by the People according to a system of proportional representation. A general election shall be held every four years.
3 Each Canton shall constitute an electoral constituency.
4 The seats shall be allocated to the Cantons according to their relative populations. Each Canton shall have at least one seat.
Art. 150 Composition and election of the Council of States
1 The Council of States shall be composed of 46 representatives of the Cantons.
2 The Cantons of Obwalden, Nidwalden, Basel-Stadt, Basel-Landschaft, Appenzell Ausserrhoden and Appenzell Innerrhoden shall each elect one representative; the other Cantons shall each elect two representatives.
3 The Cantons shall determine the rules for the election of their representatives to the Council of States.
Chapter 4: 2 Federal Supreme Court and other Judicial Authorities
Art. 188 Status
1 The Federal Supreme Court shall be the supreme judicial authority of the Confederation.
2 Its organisation and procedure shall be governed by law.
Art. 192 Principle
1 The Federal Constitution may be totally or partially revised at any time.
2 Unless the Federal Constitution and the legislation based on it provides otherwise, any revision of the Federal Constitution shall be is made by the legislative process.
3 The Federal Supreme Court shall have its own administration.
Switzerland is a multi-ethnic, multilingual and multi-confessional nation shaped by the will of its people. It has been a federal State since 1848. Switzerland has a federal structure with three different political levels: the Confederation, the cantons and the communes.
The Confederation is the name used in Switzerland for the state. In the Confederation, there are three powers: the executive (the Federal Council), the legislature (the Federal Assembly) and the judiciary (the Federal Supreme Court).
Switzerland is made up of 26 states known as cantons. They are the states that originally united in 1848 to form the Confederation, to which they each relinquished part of their sovereignty.
The communes are the lowest level of the state structure. All the cantons are divided up into political communes. In addition to the tasks that are allocated to them by their canton and also by the Confederation, the communes also have their own powers in various areas.
DVD Direct Democracy in Switzerland
Direct democracy is a well established part of the Swiss political system. This DVD explains the different types of popular rights and how they work in practice, and also looks at possible future developments. It contains 12 videos which clarify the issues by examining specific examples. An animation explains the system step by step.
This content is complemented by texts, essays and pictures relating to the political system and setting it in its historical context. A glossary explains the many terms specific to Switzerland.
Languages: English, German, French, Spanish
Date of poduction: 2005
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